The endocrine system is the group of glands of an organism that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs. In humans, the major endocrine glands include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, and adrenal glands. In vertebrates, the hypothalamus is the neural control center for all endocrine systems. The field of study dealing with the endocrine system and its disorders is endocrinology

The endocrine system is the collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, among other things

The major glands that make up the human endocrine system include the:
  • Hypothalamus.
  • Pituitary gland.
  • Thyroid.
  • Parathyroids.
  • Thymus
  • Adrenal glands.
  • Pineal body.
  • Reproductive glands (which include the ovaries and testes)
  • Pancreas.


Thyroid disease is a common problem that can cause symptoms because of over- or under-function of the thyroidgland. The thyroid gland is an essential organ for producing thyroid hormones, which maintain are body metabolism. The thyroid gland is located in the front of the neck below the Adam’s apple.

The thyroid is part of the endocrine system, which is made up ofglands that produce, store, and release hormones into the bloodstream so the hormones can reach the body’s cells. Thethyroid gland uses iodine from the foods you eat to make two main hormones: Triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroxine (T4)

Most common Thyroid disorders
  • Thyroid nodule-A lump in the thyroid, the butterfly-shaped gland at the base of the neck.

  • Hypothyroidism-A condition in which the thyroid gland doesn’t produce enough thyroid hormone.

  • Hyperthyroidism-The overproduction of a hormone by the butterfly-shaped gland in the neck (thyroid).

  • Goiter-Abnormal enlargement of the butterfly-shaped gland below the Adam’s apple (thyroid).

  • Thyroiditis-Inflammation of the thyroid, the butterfly-shaped gland in the neck.

  • Thyroid cancer-A cancer of the thyroid, the butterfly-shaped gland at the base of the neck.


What does the parathyroid mean?
Hyperparathyroidism is the main disease of the parathyroid glands. Diagnosinghyperparathyroidism is discussed in detail. High calcium levels are never normal and almost always indicate a parathyroid tumor is present. 
What does parathyroid hormone do for the body?
When the blood calcium level is too low, PTH is released to bring the calcium level back up to normal. When the calcium level is normal or gets a little too high, normal parathyroids will stop releasing PTH. Proper calcium balance is crucial to the normal functioning of the heart, nervous system, kidneys, and bones.
The range of signs and symptoms include:
  • Fragile bones that easily fracture (osteoporosis)
  • Kidney stones.
  • Excessive urination.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • Tiring easily or weakness.
  • Depression or forgetfulness.
  • Bone and joint pain.
  • Frequent complaints of illness with no apparent cause

Pituitary Gland

The pituitary gland is a tiny organ, the size of a pea, found at the base of the brain. As the “master gland” of the body, it produces many hormones that travel throughout the body, directing certain processes or stimulating other glands to produce other hormones.

The pituitary gland makes or stores many different hormones. The following hormones are made in the anterior (front part) of the pituitary gland:
  • Prolactin – stimulates breast milk production after childbirth. It also affects sex hormone levels from ovaries in women and from testes (testicles) in men, as well as fertility
  • Growth hormone (GH) – stimulates growth in childhood and is important for maintaining a healthy body composition and well-being in adults. In adults, GH is important for maintaining muscle mass and bone mass. It also affects fat distribution in the body. Read about growth hormone excess
  • Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) – stimulates the production of cortisol by the adrenal glands—small glands that sit on top of the kidneys. Cortisol, a “stress hormone,” is vital to our survival. It helps maintain blood pressure and blood glucose (sugar) levels, and is produced in larger amounts when we’re under stress—especially after illness or injury.
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) – stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones, which regulate the body’s metabolism, energy balance, growth, and nervous system activity
  • Luteinizing hormone (LH) – stimulates testosterone production in men and egg release (ovulation) in women
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) – promotes sperm production in men and stimulates the ovaries to produce estrogen and develop eggs in women. LH and FSH work together to enable normal function of the ovaries and testes

Pineal Gland

What is the pineal gland?
The pineal gland, also known as the conarium or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. The pineal gland produces melatonin, a serotonin derived hormone which modulates sleep patterns in both circadian and seasonal cycles. The shape of the gland resembles a pine cone,
What is the role of the pineal gland?
It is of the endocrine organs, the function of the pineal gland was the last discovered. Located deep in the center of the brain, the pineal gland was once known as the “third eye.” The pineal gland produces melatonin, which helps maintain circadian rhythm and regulate reproductive hormones
What foods calcify the pineal gland?
Try these 5 foods for the best pineal gland health.
  • Chlorella,spirulina, and wheatgrass are great foods packed with vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. …
  • Iodine. Fluoride from your tap water settles into the pineal gland. …
  • Oregano Oil. …
  • Apple Cider Vinegar. …
  • Beets or Beet Juice.

Adrenal Gland

The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol. They are found above the kidneys. Each glandhas an outer cortex which produces steroid hormones and an inner medulla.

What are the symptoms of adrenal gland problems?
Common symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome (due to an adrenal, pituitary, or ectopic tumor) can include:
  • Upper body obesity, round face and neck, and thinning arms and legs.
  • Skin problems, such as acne or reddish-blue streaks on the abdomen or underarm area.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Muscle and bone weakness
What is the adrenal gland and what does it do?
The adrenal cortex—the outer part of the gland—produces hormones that are vital to life, such as cortisol (which helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress) and aldosterone (which helps control blood pressure)

Thymus Gland

The thymus gland, despite containing glandular tissue and producing several hormones, is much more closely associated with the immune system than with the endocrine system. The thymus serves a vital role in the training and development of T-lymphocytes or T cells, an extremely important type of white blood cell. T cells defend the body from potentially deadly pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi.

The thymus is a soft, roughly triangular organ located in the mediastinum of the thoracic cavity anterior and superior to the heart and posterior to the sternumIt has two distinct but identical lobes that are each surrounded by a tough, fibrous capsule. Within each lobe is a superficial region of tissue called the cortex and a histologically distinct deep region called the medulla. Epithelial tissues and lymphatic tissues containing dendritic cells and macrophages make up the majority of both regions of the thymus.

The function of the thymus is to receive immature T cells that are produced in the red bone marrow and train them into functional, mature T cells that attack only foreign cells. T cells first reside within the cortex of the thymus where they come in contact with epithelial cells presenting various antigens. The immature T cells that respond to the antigens corresponding to foreign cells are selected to survive, mature, and migrate to the medulla while the rest die via apoptosis and are cleaned up by macrophages. This process is known as positive selection.

Reproductive Glands

What are the reproductive glands?

A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism. In the female of the species the reproductive cells are the egg cells, and in the male the reproductive cells are the sperm. … The female gonad, the ovary, produces egg cells.

What is reproductive system male and female?
 The purpose of the organs of the male reproductive system is to perform the following functions: To produce, maintain, and transport sperm (the male reproductive cells) and protective fluid (semen) To discharge sperm within thefemale reproductive tract during sex.

 What is the main function of the reproductive system?

 The female reproductive system has two functions: The first is to produce egg cells, and the second is to protect and nourish the offspring until birth. The male reproductive system has one function, and it is to produce and deposit sperm.